The Society of Surgical Oncology, inc.
The American Society of Breast Surgeons.
Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Psychosocial Functioning in Women with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Breast Surgery With or Without Immediate Breast Reconstruction

Helene Retrouvey MDCM, Isabel Kerrebijn BSc, Kelly A. Metcalfe RN, PhD, Anne C. O’Neill MBBCh, MMedSci, MSc, FRCS, PhD, David R. McCready MD, FRCSC, Stefan O. P. Hofer MD, PhD, FRCS(C), Toni Zhong MD, MHS, FRCS(C)
Breast Oncology
Volume 26, Issue 8 / August , 2019



To compare psychosocial function outcomes in early breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS), mastectomy alone (MA), and mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) at 1 year after surgery.


Early-stage (stage 0–2) breast cancer patients treated with BCS, MA, and IBR at the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada between May 1 2015 and July 31 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Their changes in psychosocial functioning from baseline to 12 months following surgery were compared by using the BREAST-Q, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale with ANOVA and linear regression.


There were 303 early-stage breast cancer patients: 155 underwent BCS, 78 MA, and 70 IBR. After multivariable regression accounting for age, baseline score, income, education, receipt of chemoradiation or hormonal therapy, ethnicity, cancer stage, and unilateral versus bilateral surgery, breast satisfaction was highest in BCS (72.1, SD 19.6), followed by IBR (60.0, SD 18.0), and MA (49.9, SD 78.0) at 12 months, p < 0.001. Immediate breast reconstruction had similar psychosocial well-being (69.9, SD 20.6) compared with BCS (78.5, SD 20.6), p = 0.07. Sexual and chest physical well-being were similar between IBR, BCS, and MA, p > 0.05.


Our study found that in a multidisciplinary breast cancer centre where all three breast ablative and reconstruction options are available to early breast cancer patients, either BCS or IBR can be used to provide patients with a higher degree of satisfaction and psychosocial well-being compared with MA in the long-term.

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