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Inguinal and Ilio-inguinal Lymphadenectomy in Management of Palpable Melanoma Lymph Node Metastasis: A Long-Term Prospective Evaluation of Morbidity and Quality of Life

Michael A. Henderson MD, FRACS, D. Gyorki MD, FRACS, B. H. Burmeister MD, FRANZCR, J. Ainslie MBBS, FRANZCR, R. Fisher PhD, J. Di Iulio PhD, B. M. Smithers MBBS, FRACS, A. Hong MBBS, PhD, FRANZCR, K. Shannon MBBS, FRACS, R. A. Scolyer MD, FRCPA, S. Carruthers MBBS, FRANZCR, B. J. Coventry MBBS, PhD, FRACS, S. Babington MBBS, FRANZCR, J. Duprat MD, PhD, H. J. Hoekstra MD, J. F. Thompson MD, FRACS
Melanoma
Volume 26, Issue 13 / December , 2019

Abstract

Purpose

Prospective data are lacking on long-term morbidity of inguinal lymphadenectomy including the influence of extent of surgery, use of radiotherapy, and patient factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of these factors on patient outcome, quality of life (QOL), regional symptoms, and limb volumes after inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy for melanoma.

Methods

Analysis of the subgroup of patients with inguinal lymph node field relapse of melanoma, treated by inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy in the ANZMTG/TROG randomized trial of adjuvant radiotherapy versus observation.

Results

Sixty-nine patients, 46 having undergone inguinal and 23 ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy, with median follow-up of 73 months were analyzed. Mean limb volume increased rapidly after surgery (7% by 3 months) and continued to increase for at least another 18 months. Patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 had greater limb volume increase than normal-weight patients (13.3% versus 6.9%, P = 0.030). QOL improved over the first 18 months, but despite initial improvement, regional symptoms persisted long term. Type of surgery (inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy) had no demonstrably significant effect on limb volume (9.9% versus 13.4%, P = 0.35), QOL (P = 0.68), or regional symptoms (P = 0.65). There was no difference in overall survival between inguinal and ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–1.40, P = 0.43].

Conclusions

Inguinal lymphadenectomy for melanoma is a potentially morbid procedure with significant increases in limb volume. Patients report reasonable QOL but may have ongoing regional symptoms. Overweight/obesity is associated with poorer QOL, increased limb volume, and regional symptoms.

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