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Actual 10-Year Survival After Surgical Microwave Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single-Center Experience in Japan

Tomoki Ryu MD, Yuko Takami MD, PhD, Yoshiyuki Wada MD, PhD, Takanobu Hara MD, PhD, Shin Sasaki MD, Hideki Saitsu MD, PhD
Hepatobiliary Tumors
Volume 26, Issue 12 / November , 2019



Little evidence exists regarding long-term survival after microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to determine actual 10-year survival and clarify the clinicopathological features of patients surviving ≥ 10 years after surgical microwave ablation.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective study identified 459 patients who underwent surgical microwave ablation for HCC with curative intent between 2001 and 2008. We compared 100 patients who survived ≥ 10 years with 321 patients who died within 10 years.


Median overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were 5.5 and 2.4 years, respectively. The actual 10-year overall survival rate was 23.8%, and the actual 10-year recurrence-free survival rate was 8.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that age > 70 years [odds ratio 1.87, P = 0.029], hepatitis C virus positivity (OR 2.30, P = 0.004), Child–Pugh class B (OR 3.28, P = 0.003), and platelet count < 10 × 104 /µL (OR 1.93, P = 0.033) were independent risk factors for actual 10-year survival. During 10-year follow-up, 66% of the ≥ 10-year survivors developed recurrence, and 91% of these patients underwent further curative treatment, including hepatic resection or local ablation, for HCC recurrence.


Ten-year survival after surgical microwave ablation for HCC can be expected in approximately 24% of patients, even though nearly 2/3 of our 10-year survival patients experienced recurrence. Close postoperative follow-up and further curative treatment for recurrence are important for improving long-term survival.

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