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Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Association of Preoperative Hypercoagulability with Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Microvascular Invasion After Liver Resection: A Multicenter Study

Xiu-Ping Zhang MD, Teng-Fei Zhou MD, Zhi-Heng Wang MD, Fan Zhang MD, Cheng-Qian Zhong MD, Yi-Ren Hu MD, Kang Wang MD, Zong-Tao Chai MD, Zhen-Hua Chen MD, Meng-Chao Wu MD, Wan Yee Lau MD, FRCS, FRACS (Hon), Shu-Qun Cheng MD, PhD
Hepatobiliary Tumors
Volume 26, Issue 12 / November , 2019



Microvascular invasion (MVI) predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC patients with hypercoagulability are prone to develop thrombosis; however, the relationship between preoperative coagulability state, as reflected by the international normalized ratio (INR) level, and MVI remains unclear.


From January 2009 to December 2012, HCC patients who underwent R0 liver resection (LR) from four cancer centers entered into this study. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis.


Of the 2509 HCC patients who were included into this study, 1104 were found to have MVI in the resected specimens. These patients were divided into the low (n = 151), normal (n = 796), and high (n = 157) INR subgroups based on the preoperative INR levels. The low INR subgroup had a significantly higher incidence of MVI than the normal or high INR subgroups (61.6% vs. 41.6% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001). HCC patients with MVI were significantly more likely to have a low preoperative INR level (p < 0.001); the INR level (p < 0.001) was an independent risk factor of OS and RFS. HCC patients with MVI in the low INR subgroup had significantly worse RFS and OS than the normal or high INR subgroups (median RFS 13.5 vs. 20.2 vs. 21.6 months, p < 0.001; median OS 35.5 vs. 59.5 vs. 57.0 months, p < 0.001).


Preoperative hypercoagulability was associated with poor long-term prognosis in HCC patients with MVI after R0 LR.

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