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Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Standard Operating Procedures for Anesthesia Management in Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Improve Patient Outcomes: A Patient Cohort Analysis

Dominique Fichmann MMed, Lilian Roth MD, Dimitri A. Raptis MD, PhD, Marie-Elisabeth Kajdi MD, Philippe Gertsch MD, René Vonlanthen MD, MHA, Olivier de Rougemont MD, Julio Moral MD, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer MD, Kuno Lehmann MD, PhD
Peritoneal Surface Malignancy
Volume 26, Issue 11 / October , 2019



Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) offer survival benefits in well-selected patients with peritoneal tumors. The complexity of CRS/HIPEC requires surgical specialization. In contrast, limited data are available regarding the impact of anesthesia management. We assessed the role of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for anesthesia on perioperative patient outcomes after CRS/HIPEC.


Between 2009 and 2015, 112 CRS/HIPEC were performed at the University Hospital of Zurich. Procedures were grouped in an “early or late” group before (n = 57) and after (n = 55) the introduction of SOPs, which defined management of fluids, serum albumin, hemostasis, and body temperature.


Introduction of SOPs significantly changed patient management. Patients received in total less colloids (p = 0.03) and less diuretics (p = 0.007). We noticed an increased substitution of albumin (p = 0.001) and coagulation factors (p = 0.008). Body temperatures were higher at the end of the operation (p = 0.005), and more patients were extubated in the operating room (66% vs. 42%, p = 0.02). The rate of major complications (p = 0.003) and reoperations (p = 0.01) was reduced after the introduction of SOPs. On multivariate analysis, two independent prognostic factors were identified. The use of > 2000 mL of colloids [odds ratio (OR) 5.31 (1.06–26.56), p = 0.042] was associated with major morbidity. In contrast, substitution of albumin [OR 0.12 (0.01–0.96), p = 0.046] was associated with better outcomes.


SOPs for perioperative anesthesia management have a major impact on outcomes of patients after CRS/HIPEC. Management of colloid administration was an independent prognostic factor for perioperative outcomes. This highlights the role of the anesthesiologist and the need for specialization beyond the surgical team.

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