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Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Elevated Maximum Core Body Temperature During Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion (HIPEC) is Associated with Increased Postoperative Complications

Ryan J. Hendrix MD, Jonathan P. Kassira BA, Laura A. Lambert MD, FACS
Peritoneal Surface Malignancy
Online First ™ - July , 2019



Hyperthermia enhances the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents used during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC). However, this may result in an elevated core body temperature (CBT), with unintended effects on surgical morbidity. This study evaluates the relationship of maximum CBT during CRS/HIPEC on postoperative outcomes.


A retrospective review of patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC from January 2011 to July 2017 was performed. Outcomes were stratified according to maximum CBT reached during HIPEC. Primary study endpoints were 30-day morbidity and 30-day complication severity.


Overall, 135 consecutive CRS/HIPEC cases were reviewed; 36 (27%) had a maximum CBT ≥ 39.5 °C during the 90-min HIPEC. CBT ≥ 39.5 °C was associated with an increase in 30-day postoperative complications (58% vs. 34%, p = 0.01) and severe Clavien–Dindo grade III or higher complications (22% vs. 11%, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of having any complication was 3.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–9.14) and a Clavien–Dindo grade III or higher complication was 3.46 (95% CI 1.10–10.95) when maximum CBT reached 39.5 °C. Flow rates ≥ 2.35 L/min were associated with lower average CBT (p = 0.05) and improved peritoneal heating (p = 0.02).


Maximum CBT ≥ 39.5 °C is associated with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity. Higher flow rates are associated with improved intraperitoneal heating, lower CBT, and may contribute to optimizing the therapeutic benefit of HIPEC.

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